BPS Summer Program Alumni spotlight


20170617_191504Hi, my name is Lonzie Hedgepeth. I am from Rocky Mount, North Carolina. I recently graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Chemistry from the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Last year, summer of 2016, I attended the Biophysical Society Summer Research Program in Biophysics. I learned about the Biophysics Program through the help of a guest speaker in my genetics class.

My professor, Dr. Conner Sandefur, invited Patrick McCarter to talk about the biophysical properties of DNA, and how mutations in DNA can lead to diseases such as Cystic Fibrosis. Patrick’s lecture, which not only deepened my insight into the fields of biophysics and genetics, exuded vigor and confidence. After the talk, I approached Patrick. We talked about possible summer research opportunities that are available at University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill and then exchanged contact information. Later that day, I sent him an email, thanking him for a wonderful and informative seminar.

Soon after, Patrick contacted Dr. Sandefur, informing him about the Summer Research Program in Biophysics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Sandefur and Patrick, who had attended the program himself, thought that this program would be an ideal program for a budding research scientist, such as myself, to gain extensive research experience in an environment that would mirror that of Biochemistry and Biophysics Ph.D. programs. Fortunately, I got accepted! After meeting with my cohort, I realized that we were a very diverse group, coming from different backgrounds. At first I was a little nervous, but over time the cohort and I became very close and connected like a family.

During the summer course, I was able to conduct graduate level research, attend lectures and seminars hosted by UNC-Chapel Hill faculty, participate in several professional developments activities, and also socialize with people at similar stages of their academic careers. I conducted my research in the lab of Dr. Timothy Elston, a professor in the department of Pharmacology. My direct research mentor was Patrick McCarter, who at the time was a graduate student in the Elston lab. I never expected to be working alongside Patrick, someone who I greatly admired. We worked on investigating Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) in budding yeast. We wanted to define time-dependent interactions between the Sln1 and Sho1 branches of the yeast (S. cerevisiae) High-Osmolar Glycerol (HOG) pathway. Each branch transmits hyper-osmotic stress through a MAPK cascade to Hog1 the terminal Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase of the HOG pathway. My role in this project was to use mathematical models to investigate the time-dependent contribution of each branch to Hog1 phosphorylation (MAPK are typically active when phosphorylated). I defined a set of 24 mathematical models that each tested a different hypothesis about the time-dependent contributions to Hog1 activity. Mathematical models provide us with a way to investigate aspects of the biology that are currently not feasible with experiments alone. I then used UNC-Chapel Hill’s Killdevil High-Performance Research Cluster to ‘fit’ each model to an experimental Hog1 phosphorylation training data set. The best ‘fitting’ models were then used to predict how Hog1 phosphorylation would change under different experimental conditions including dynamic hyper-osmotic stress and/or with various genetic perturbations in key HOG pathway signaling proteins.

With the help of Dr. Elston, Patrick, and my colleagues, I was able to present my findings at Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS). In addition to presenting my project, during ABRCMS I was also able to attend seminars, participate in networking, and learn about a variety of potential PhD programs.

While I mainly focused on computational science in the Elston lab, the interdisciplinary nature of the project and the collaborative research environment also allowed me to directly communicate with the experimental biologists who were gathering data needed to build the models. Thus, I learned a great deal about cellular and molecular biology, live-cell microscopy, and genetics.

Working in the lab allowed me to see how graduate students, post-docs, and senior professors manage their time, maintain organized lab spaces, and communicate their unique perspectives in an interdisciplinary research group. I was able to witness how modern scientists work together to solve some of the most interesting questions in the world. I am now using these experiences, along with the skills I accumulated from the Biophysics program, to further prepare myself to apply for Ph.D. programs in the fields of Pharmacology, Biophysics, and/or Systems Biology.

I am currently in a Post Baccalaureate Research Education Program (PREP) at Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC). I have kept in touch with Dr. Elston, Patrick, and also Dr. Sandefur! I have developed an invaluable relationship with them. They have become more than just mentors to me. I hope to emulate their perseverance and dedication to help others. They have inspired me to reach out and share my experiences to other young scientists, and to encourage them to pursue their dreams to conduct high-quality biomedical research. I am also extremely grateful to have attended the Summer Research Program in Biophysics. Through this experience, my aspirations of conducting high-quality research are immensely strengthened, and my relationships with scientists developed and flourished. I look forward to the day when I am able to help a young and budding scientist get started on their own journey in science!

Everything You Need to Know about BPS Travel Awards for the 2017 Annual Meeting

A month remains before the abstract and travel award deadlines for the Biophysical Society’s 61st Annual Meeting, being held in New Orleans, Louisiana, February 11-15, 2017. If you are a student, postdoc, early or mid-career scientist looking for a little extra funding to attend the Annual Meeting, be sure to apply for a BPS Travel Award. Check out the FAQ below to learn more about the application process.

What is the Travel Award application deadline?

October 5. Remember: You MUST submit an abstract by October 3 in order to be eligible for a Travel Award.

Can I submit any part of my application late?

No. ALL parts of your application are due by the October 5 deadline – including your letters of recommendation! Start asking your advisers for references now, and be sure to read each award’s description so you know exactly what is required.

I think I’m qualified for more than one award. Can I apply for multiple awards?

Yes, you can apply for multiple travel awards, as many as you are eligible for. However, you can only be selected to WIN one award.

 Oops! I forgot to submit my abstract by October 3. But I am going to submit a late abstract! Can I still apply for a Travel Award?

No. Only abstracts submitted by the regular abstract deadline (October 3) will be eligible for a Travel Award.

I am a co-author on an abstract, but not a presenting author. Can I apply for a Travel Award?

In most cases, no. For all Education, CID, and International awards, you MUST be a presenting author on the abstract. If you are not a presenting author, your abstract will be marked as ineligible. This also applies to CPOW awards for postdocs. For the mid-career CPOW award and the Bridging Funds, you must be a co-author or presenting author on a submitted abstract.

When will I find out if I won?
You will be notified on the outcome of your application via email by November 23. Be sure to check your spam folder if you don’t see the email.

My adviser would rather send the letter of recommendation directly to you. Where exactly should he/she send it?

Letters of recommendation can be emailed to lphelan@biophysics.org. All letters must be received by the October 5 deadline.

 I am not a US citizen, but I am still a minority researching in the US. Why can’t I apply for the CID Travel Award?

Because the CID Travel Awards are funded by an NIH grant, only US citizens or permanent US residents are eligible. Be sure to check out the Education or CPOW awards to see if you qualify.

I am currently a graduate student. However, by the time of the Annual Meeting I will be a postdoc. What award should I apply for?

You should apply for the awards that fits your career level as of October 5. In this case, you must apply as a graduate student.

I am no longer a student or a postdoc. Am I eligible for a Travel Award?

CID, CPOW, International Relations Committee travel awards and Bridging Funds are available for junior, senior, and/or mid-career scientists. Please check eligibility requirements online to see if you qualify for any of these awards.

 

Have additional questions? Please contact the Society Office at (240)-290-5600 or lphelan@biophysics.org.

 

BPS Summer Research Program Alumni Reunion: A Current Student’s Perspective

From June 17-19 the Biophysical Society’s Summer Program in Biophysics hosted its annual Alumni Reunion Weekend in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Previous program participants joined the current class for a fun and informative weekend that included a BBQ reception, scientific presentations from program alumni, career talks and panels featuring a diverse group of visiting scientists, as well as poster presentations by students from the current class. Students, alumni, and professors had a chance to catch up, network, and even make a few new friends over the course of the weekend. Current students received feedback on their posters and guidance on navigating their careers, along with the opportunity to ask questions on a variety of topics. In this blog, we will hear from current BPS Summer Program participant, Monica Cortez, on her thoughts about the reunion weekend.

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The Biophysical Society’s 2016 Summer Program Alumni Reunion Weekend was my first experience participating in an event where I had the opportunity to present my research. The weekend’s poster session went well and I was able to discuss my research with alumni, current students, program staff, and visiting scientists. During the session, one scientist approached me with a mini experiment she was conducting on students during the poster session: I was dealt the task of explaining my project to her as if she were a time traveler from the 1800s. At first I was nervous about the approach to explaining my project in an elementary way, but much to my surprise, I quickly uncovered my talent for science communication. As a scientist, it is important to be able to communicate your research to anyone ranging from the general public to the most knowledgeable scientists. There was a lot of fun to be had explaining my project in breaking it down to the bare bones of it, the most fundamental concepts going into the big picture of the research. I realized then that my ability to simplify the explanation of my project meant my mentor had done an excellent job in helping me understand my project.

As the poster session proceeded, groups would rotate, and some people would linger a little longer if something caught their interest or if they needed further clarification about the project. This brought me to my next challenge, the challenge of defending previous work done on the project; work done by other researchers collaborating on the project. This means that I was asked questions about the research that I had not asked myself previously. One particular question involved a technique I had not done previously. My first time doing the technique was less than 24 hours before the question was asked. This was a frustrating moment during the poster session. The conversation about a tiny but very important detail to the project felt like it went on for hours. As my first poster session and first experience presenting my “explanation of research” experience, I felt targeted by the question, but I walked away from it with a new understanding. This understanding is that you will be asked questions you did not think about, and you will have to answer truthfully that you do not know the answer to their question. It is not a matter of being targeted, rather it is a matter of realizing research is about answering questions no one knows the answer to.

On the concluding day of the weekend, Summer Program alumni presented their own research and took part in a career panel. This day, program alum, Dr. Yadilette Rivera-Colón provided feedback about the “time traveler” experiment she conducted and went on to explain her background and her path to get where she is today. Congratulations to her because she announced her next career move: an associate professor position! It was amazing to sit amongst a crowd seeing one of our very own alumni finally serving in academia as a professor. Another alum spoke on getting NSF grants and provided tips on how to apply. There were also alumni who spoke on taking steps towards other career opportunities outside of academia. I felt that this was a good choice of topic and beneficial to expose the current Biophysical Society’s Summer Program students to alternative career choices. The career panel was also beneficial in that it led to interesting discussions. One particular point I feel is important to mention is the commonality among the scientists on the panel: even though their paths were very different, they all overcame potential roadblocks encountered by building an excellent support system. One very emotional topic involved the journey to getting a PhD; many panelists felt a lack of excitement and emotional support from their advisors when passing their candidacy, being given a small “congratulations” and a “so what’s next for experiments?”. I was taken aback by this because I’ve always surrounded myself in a good network of people who get excited over my accomplishments no matter how big or small they are. This emotional experience was important for the summer students to witness, highlighting how a strong support system and communication skills play a huge part in success. Communication of your work as a scientist is important, but more importantly the communication between you and your advisor/boss is even more important. Once the emotional needs of the mentee are efficiently communicated to the mentor, their relationship can strengthen. Your mentor/mentee relationship is an important part to succeeding in graduate school and beyond. Several alumni candidly discussed how not meeting these emotional needs can lead to crippling depression during graduate school, and encouraged current students to utilize the Program’s alumni network as a source of ongoing support throughout their careers.

The weekend concluded differently than I had expected but overall I wouldn’t have changed anything about this experience. The summer students met people from different career paths and learned how to communicate. Being a part of this summer program feels like a privilege. Not only was I blessed with an advisor who helped me accomplish this part of my career journey, but I am blessed to be working on a project with an excellent mentor here at UNC who is extremely supportive as well. This weekend showed me that I also have a network of alumni from the Biophysical Society’s Summer Research program; an important connection between previous students and the current students has been established, and we are so lucky to have met them all.

 – Monica K Cortez, Biophysical Society Summer Research Program Fellow

BPS Summer Program Alumni Spotlight: Yadilette Rivera-Colón

The Society recently caught up with 2008 Biophysical Society Summer Program in Biophysics alumna and active member of the BPS Education Committee, Yadilette Rivera-Colón. Since participating in the program as an undergraduate, Yadilette has gone on to receive her PhD in Molecular and Cellular Biology from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst and complete a post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Pennsylvania. Read more about her life and career in her 2014 profile in the BPS newsletter. This August, Yadilette will begin a new, exciting chapter in her career.

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Tell us about where you are now in your career.

I just attained my first faculty position at Bay Path University. Starting this fall, I will begin my roles as an undergraduate research coordinator and assistant professor in biology.

What excites you most about starting this new position?

The most exciting aspect of this new position is the fact that I will get to educate not just within the school but also the community as a whole.  There are many underserved students in that area and I want to be able to create educational opportunities for them so that they know how many options are available for them. I am looking forward to try innovative teaching methods and one of the reasons I joined Bay Path University is because it is an environment where professors are encouraged to do so.

What is your research focus?

I plan to study novel acetyltransferases and gain insight into their structure and function using exciting directed evolution approaches.

When and how did you first become interested in this type of research?

I first developed an interest in protein structural biology as an undergraduate summer student while studying T7 Polymerase in Dr. Craig T. Martin’s lab at UMass Amherst.

How have mentors played a role in shaping your success?

Yes! In addition to working closely with your thesis advisor, it is important to surround yourself with mentors that have supplementary skills, strengths, and areas of expertise. Dr. Craig T. Martin, Dr. Jeanne Hardy, Dr. Sandra Petersen, Dr. Barbara Osborne, Dr. Scott C. Garman (my thesis advisor), and Dr. Ronen Marmorstein (my post-doc advisor) were all critical to my success as a scientist. My amazing teaching mentors, Dr. Sandra Devenny and Dr. Georgia Arbuckle, were similarly important to my development as a teacher. These professors helped me with everything from improving my grammar to developing confidence to designing efficient and informative experiments. I have also found mentors in my undergraduate students: Emily Schutsky, Sarah Tarullo, Shaul Kushinsky, Andrew Maguire, and Nada Bader. They always kept me grounded and helped me remember what it is like at the beginning of your scientific career.

What have been some of your toughest challenges so far in advancing your career?

So many challenges! In addition to the new language, moving to the main land from Puerto Rico presented a variety of weather and cultural differences. From the necessity of buying a winter coat, to shaking hands firmly rather than hugging and kissing to say “hi,” I found grad school life to be a bit colder than what I was used to. I felt a certain amount of pressure to conform to the quieter, less colorful personal and professional styles shown by my some of my classmates. Over time, however, I have learned a lot about other cultures and how amazing it is to have perspectives of people from very different backgrounds. There were times when I struggled with the fact that some people achieve their goals more quickly than others, but I have learned that there is nothing wrong with being a bit slower, as you can still accomplish the goals you have set for yourself.

What was the most important thing you learned or took away from the Biophysical Society’s Summer Program that helped you get where you are at now?

Dr. Martin told me about the Summer Course in Biophysics, and it has been one of the most instrumental aspects of my development as a scientist. My current success would be unimaginable without the amazing support network of professors and colleagues that I cultivated there.

What was your favorite thing about participating in the summer program?

I really enjoyed the opportunity to study with students from different academic and ethnic backgrounds, especially when working together on our homework. Everyone I collaborated with had a different area of expertise, and we helped each other learn challenging new concepts in a really fun, diverse environment.

What advice would you give for current undergraduates interested in pursuing a higher degree?

Keep your career options open and learn about everything. You never know what skills or connections will help you in the future, so keep learning and keep growing your professional network!

BPS Summer Program Alumni Spotlight: Joshua Mannheimer

Josh_Mannheimer_PhotoWe recently had a chance to interview Joshua Mannheimer, an alumnus of the 2013 Biophysical Society Summer Program in Biophysics, and learn about what he has been up to since his time in the Summer Program. Currently, Joshua is at Colorado State University wrapping up his Master of Engineering Degree in mechanical engineering after which he will be directly matriculating into the Biomedical Engineering PhD program.

What is your research focus?

I consider myself an applied computational biophysicist. My goal is to use computational tools to guide experimental scientists by providing insight into biological processes through modeling. Additionally, I am interested in developing computational tools to assist in clinical medicine. My current project uses advanced statistical techniques, called machine learning, to predict the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents on certain cancer types based on genetic analysis.

When and how did you first become interested in this type of research?

I really got interested in biology in high school, but after taking physics my senior year I decided to get my BS in physics. After a couple years of pursuing physics I had decided to take a few chemical and biological engineering courses; it was through these courses I was connected with a faculty member in the Biomedical Engineering department who happened to have a background in physics. It was through him that I realized the potential to use physics-based models to probe questions in biology.

In terms of what I do right now, it was actually quite serendipitous. After my first year in the ME program I was looking for an internship in industry to build experience professionally. After this did not work out, I needed to do something for the summer. I contacted a faculty member in the Biomedical Engineering department who happened to need someone experienced with programming. This is how I learned about big data and machine learning and was immediately aware of how big of an impact this could have on clinical medicine.

Have mentors played a role in your success?

I have been fortunate enough to have many mentors play a role in my life from school teachers who fostered my curiosity, many adults whom I looked up to as a kid who always encouraged me, and of course some of the faculty I have worked for over the years who invested time in my development as a scientist. Most importantly I have always had a supportive family.

What have been some of your toughest challenges so far in advancing your career?

I was diagnosed with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) early in my childhood and that has by far been the biggest obstacle I have faced growing up. It impacts the way I learn and work when it comes directly to academic pursuits; however, managing my mental health while in a demanding program has been the biggest challenge, one I still struggle with but which makes me even more determined to succeed.

What was the most important thing you learned or took away from the summer program that helped you get to where you are at now?

I participated in the summer program right after I had graduated with my BS. At that point I had felt a little dismayed because I had just finished this really demanding degree and I still felt like I knew nothing. During the summer course I realized that what I really learned was how to solve problems and was impressed with how I could implement these skills to work on novel problems. It really put things into perspective.

What was your favorite thing about the summer program?

I really enjoyed the people. It was really beneficial to work with people who came from different academic backgrounds but more importantly to meet new people from different backgrounds and places.

What advice would you give for current undergraduates interested in pursuing a higher degree?

I would encourage any student to research the opportunities a graduate degree affords them and how that degree, and more importantly that research area, will lead to employment opportunities in industry and academia. After all, a degree is not useful unless you can use it.

Biophysics Research and Lyme Disease

May is Lyme Disease Awareness Month in the US. Lyme disease is a bacterial infection primarily transmitted by Ixodes ticks (known as deer ticks) and black-legged ticks that can cause a wide variety of both temporary and chronic symptoms. The CDC estimates that 300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease in the US every year, but Lyme disease is easily misdiagnosed, so the actual number with the disease could be significantly higher. We recently spoke with Biophysical Society member Charles Wolgemuth, University of Arizona, about his research on the bacterium that causes Lyme disease.

What is the connection between your research and Lyme disease?

Many cells are able to actively move themselves through their surroundings.  In order to do this, the cells must exert forces on their environment.  One of the main questions that my research asks is how do cells produce these forces and how do these forces drive the movements of the cells through various environments.  The bacterium that causes Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, is a fascinating organism.  It is very long (for a bacterium) and is quite thin (being only 300 nm in diameter).  It is also one of the most invasive mammalian pathogens, being able to invade many tissues in the mammal that other bacteria cannot access.  It “swims” through different tissues by undulating its entire body.  We are currently working to understand what about this bacterium’s motility makes it so adept at invading mammalian tissue, a critical aspect of the disease process in Lyme disease.

MATLAB Handle Graphics

This cartoon schematic shows the basic structure of these bacteria. The cell body is green and the helical filaments (flagella) are shown in purple. There are 7-11 flagella per cell end and they are anchored to tiny rotary motors. If you were to peel the flagella away from the cell body, the cell would straighten (as shown on the left side of the schematic).

Why is your research important to those concerned about Lyme disease?

Lyme disease occurs when a person is bitten by an Ixodes scapularis tick, a species of hard tick, infected with Borrelia burgdorferi.  These ticks feed for approximately 4-7 days.  The bacteria reside in the midgut of the tick.  During feeding, the bacteria start replicating and eventually (after about 40 hours) some of the bacteria break through the lining of the tick midgut and swim to the salivary glands.  The bacteria then break into the salivary glands and are deposited in the skin of the mammal through the tick saliva.  Once in the skin, the bacteria are able to move through the mammalian body, infecting many tissues such as the skin, joints, heart, and nervous system.  In order to do all this, these bacteria must be able to maneuver through a large range of different environments.  The symptoms of Lyme disease are caused by our bodies trying to fight off the bacterial infection.  It has been shown that the motility of B. burgdorferi is imperative for the bacterium to set up infection.  Therefore, understanding how this bacterium is so invasive and how its movement allows it to set up infection and evade our immune system is crucial for understanding this disease.

How did you get into this area of research?

Since graduate school, I have been fascinated by figuring out how different cells create the shapes of their bodies and how they move from place to place.  I got into working on Lyme disease when I heard about the shape of B. burgdorferi.  It is shaped like a wave! and achieves this by wrapping helical filaments around a cylindrical body.  The physics for how this works out was perplexing to me and captivated my interest.

How long have you been working on it?

I have been working on this for nearly 15 years.  I started thinking about the problem while I was a postdoc at UC Berkeley and then wrote a grant to work on the shape of B. burgdorferi during my first academic appointment at the University of Connecticut Health Center.

Do you receive public funding for this work? If so, from what agency?

We receive funding for this research from the National Institutes of Health.

Have you had any surprise findings thus far?

One of the first really exciting findings that we had was that we were able to show that the movements of these bacteria through gelatin (such as unsweetened Jello) is very similar to the movements through our skin.  Gelatin is basically a meshwork of protein, which is also true about the dermis of our skin.  Interestingly, the pores in the gelatin are substantially smaller than the diameter of these bacteria.  Therefore, B. burgdorferi has to push apart the gelatin in order to penetrate into it.  This finding has enabled us to develop an in vitro assay for studying how these bacteria invade into different tissues.  We have a couple really new results realted to invasion and the movement through gelatin that we are very excited about.  We haven’t published them yet, so I can’t say too much more than that at this time.

What is particularly interesting about the work from the perspective of other researchers?

I can’t speak for other researchers, but I think that one of the most interesting aspects of our work is that we have been able to link the physics of how these bacteria move to aspects of the disease process.  We recently developed a mathematical model for the early stages of Lyme disease that is based on the physics that we have determined from our gelatin assays.   We were able to show using this model why the rash that accompanies Lyme disease sometimes appear as a bull’s eye pattern.  The model also explains why these rashes grow so fast (around 1 cm in diameter per day).  The ability to go from the basic physics of the movement of these bacteria to an understanding of the disease itself I think is especially exciting.

What is particularly interesting about the work from the perspective of the public?

I would have to say the same thing that I just said:  We have shown that understanding the basic science of these organisms is informative about the disease process. Fifteen years ago when I started working on this, people would ask me what I was working on, and I would tell them that I was trying to figure out how the bacterium that causes Lyme disease creates its shape.  I would often get asked then about the practical application of figuring that out: how would understanding the shape of the bacterium help fight the disease?  How should I respond to this?  At that point of time, I didn’t know what we would figure out.  But it didn’t matter to me; it was an interesting question.  The way I see it, basic knowledge is worth an infinite amount more than any specific practical application.  Knowledge can be built upon and used in ways that no one can predict ahead of time.

With that, I will conclude with one thought for the general public: We must keep funding basic scientific questions, because we never know where a specific line of inquiry may lead us.  Science is not about foreseeable practical ends; it is about discovering things we never thought we would find.

 

Interview with Dr. Raz Jelinek

BPJ_110_9.c1.inddBJ: How did you compose the cover image for Biophysical Journal 110/9?

RJ: The image is designed to highlight the thrust of our paper; the C-dot-phospholipid conjugates are seamlessly embedded within the lipid bilayer “carpet” representing the cell membrane.  The fluorescence of the protruding C-dots (green spheres) , constituting the core property of the C-dots and the primary analytical tool, is represented by the “hallows” around the spheres.

BJ: How does this image reflect your scientific research?

RJ: We are deeply interested in cellular membranes, and have been active over the years trying to decipher fundamental structural and functional properties of membranes, primarily as related to their lipid bilayer scaffolding.   The image reflects the research presented in the paper—development of a new analytical platform for studying membranes and membrane processes.

BJ: Can you please provide a few real-world examples of your research?

RJ: An important research program in my lab focuses on the relationship between membranes and amyloid diseases, particularly Alzheimer’s disease.  While amyloid diseases are incurable, there is a growing evidence for the intimate roles of cellular membranes in the onset and pathogenicity of the diseases.  We aim to elucidate these putative relationships and assess the relevance of membrane interactions toward development of therapeutic treatments.

BJ: How does your research apply to those who are not working in your specific field?

RJ: We believe that introduction of new tools for imaging membranes and analysis of membrane dynamics could aid research efforts of scientists in other disciplines, including biologists, biochemists, and bioengineers.

BJ: Do you have a website where our readers can view your recent research?

RJ: http://www.bgu.ac.il/~razj/

– Sukhendu Nandi, Ravit Malishev, Susanta Bhunia, Sofiya Kolusheva, Jurgen Jopp, Raz Jelinek